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The Fourth Child Cj Carmichael Epub

We also examined the effects of prenatal phthalate esters and BPA levels and the child estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genotype on the ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D/4D), which is considered to be an index of prenatal exposure to androgen among children at 7 years of age. Males with the ESR1 (A > G; rs9340799) GG-genotype born to prenatal non-smokers had a significantly lower 2D/4D in the right hand than males with the AA/AG-genotype born to prenatal smokers [74]. Males with the ESR1 (A > G; rs2077647) AG/GG genotype in the group exposed to high levels of MEHP or ΣDEHP showed feminized 2D/4D compared to males with the AA genotype who had low exposure to MEHP or ΣDEHP [75]. However, there were no associations between the mean 2D/4D and metabolites other than MEHP or BPA [75].

the fourth child cj carmichael epub


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